Artificial Intelligence in the US and the EU: a new management and control strategy
According to A. Engler
This year promises to be a very important year for AI management. The US and EU have already secured hundreds of millions of dollars to fund AI research, and have helped formalize relationships and oversight in this area. However, 2021 promises to be even more productive. In addition to making decisions to increase spending on AI, the US Congress directed the White House to create a new National AI Initiatives Governance. This is all in response to the adoption by the European Commission (EC) of the Digital Services Act, which sets out to oversee how Internet platforms use AI. The EC is also poised to offer a comprehensive approach to AI protection in the spring.
1) ORDER OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE On November 17, 2020, the Office of Fiscal Regulation released the definitive guidance for federal agencies on when and how to regulate AI use by the private sector. This document provides a broad perspective on AI oversight and calls for immediate action by requiring federal agencies to submit compliance plans by May 17, 2021. Some regulations need to be adapted to ensure consumer safety, such as autonomous vehicles and artificially intelligent medical devices. In other cases, new rules are required, including at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, to enforce anti-discrimination laws in AI recruitment systems.
2) THE USE OF AI IN THE CIVIL FEDERAL GOVERNMENT On December 3, 2020, the White House issued a US Presidential Executive Order setting a timeline for cataloging AI applications, setting a set of principles to be ready by June 1, 2021. The order also directs the FCC to develop guidelines and requirements for inventorying AI applications. by February 1, 2021.
3) ESTABLISHMENT IN THE WHITE HOUSE OF A NATIONAL AI INITIATIVE As part of the National Defense Authority Act (NDAA), Congress created a new National AI Initiative Administration for federal AI coordination.
4) EXPANDING FINANCING AND CAPACITY FOR AI RESEARCH In 2020, $ 140 million was allocated by non-governmental foundations to fund seven new artificial intelligence research institutes in the United States. In addition to this, the grant process has begun for $ 160 million in 2021. This funding is $ 300 million over five years for a network of national AI institutes. The total amount of non-governmental funding for AI in the United States will be about $ 1 billion.
5) FUTURE EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION IN THE FIELD OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE European Commission (EC) President Ursula von der Leyen has made artificial intelligence oversight a priority and is expected to pass legislation in the first half of 2021. Despite the delay due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the EC is working steadily to achieve this goal. Her proposal will build on the AI White Paper and Ethics Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence.
6) EUROPEAN UNION LAW ON DIGITAL SERVICES The European Commission has already presented two other important pieces of legislation to govern technology companies - the Digital Markets Act (DMA) and the Digital Services Act (DSA), which will have a defining impact on the use of AI in Europe.